Infinite Universe: Quantum Physics of Infinity
This is called a Zero Point Field.
Theoretically, what happens in the vacuum is that electrons and positrons are continuously created, out of nothing as it were, but these pairs are very shortlived. Almost instantaneously they annihilate each other and release energy, which in turn again manifests itself as electron-positron pairs. These effects could lead to a cosmic repulsion.
The problem, however, is that the value of the cosmological constant, and the strength of the cosmic repulsion would be much too high, and this is contrary to observation; the so called "cosmological constant problem" reviewed in Sidharth a. And like an "evil twin" another dark force has been hypothesized to fill the missing gap in the universe, i.tretcorsaffcu.cf
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In fact, these dark entities, in order to exist, require non-baryonic physics Capistrano, In fact, after over 25 years of searching, there is no conclusive evidence for the existence of dark matter e. Although Clowe et al. Yet another dramatic discovery since has been made with the help of the SuperKamiokande experiment in Japan reviewed in Sidharth a. This facility observed solar radiation, in particular for the very strange, maverick supposedly massless particles, neutrinos.
It turns out that these particles now possess a miniscule mass, about a billionth that of an electron. The discovery explains one puzzle, what has been commonly called the solar neutrino problem. The point is that we seem to receive much less than the theoretically expected number of neutrinos from solar radiation. But the theoretical prediction was made on the basis of the assumption that neutrinos were massless. Even with the tiniest of masses, the problem disappears.
However these observations challenge what has come to be known as the Standard Model of Particle Physics, which takes the masslessness of the neutrino for granted. Could these massive neutrinos be the elusive dark matter? The answer is no--the mass of this matter is still much too small to stop the expansion, which is very well in view of the latest ever expanding universe scenario.
Another iconoclastic dramatic observation regards the fine structure constant, which has been considered to be a sacrosanct constant of the universe. However, based on recent observations, the fine structure constant has been slowly decreasing over billions of years Webb , Webb Webb and co-workers have come to this conclusion based on the spectrum of light from the distant Quasars and comparing this with spectra in the vicinity.
As the fine structure constant is made up of the electric charge of the electron, the speed of light, and the Planck constant, this would mean that one or some or even all of them are not the sacred constants they have been taken for, but are slowly changing with time. The implications are quite dramatic. For instance this would mean that atoms and molecules in the past were not the same as their counterparts today; which means these changes will continue into the future, effecting not just the universe but life. If the values of these constants change, so would atoms and molecules and the narrow limits for life get narrower in time.
Therefore, with the aid of supplementary theories, such as "dark matter," "density fluctuations" and "dark energy" which is believed to serve as a repulsive force that might be speeding up the expansion , the big bang model has been saved and the universe behaves according to theory; so long as we ignore that these are theories and not established facts, and that these theories and the patchwork of hypothesis which support them are not, at present, compatible, or mutually predictable.
The answers to these various problems may lie in quantum mechanics. As noted, Hoyle proposed that matter is being continually created. In fact, as also proposed by Sidharth Sidharth , a,b; Sidharth a matter might in fact be continually created at random from a background Quantum Vacuum or dark energy.
The Many-Worlds Interpretation Says There Are Infinite Timelines and Infinite Yous
This model, coupled with a small cosmological constant, can account for an ever expanding accelerating universe, the radius of the universe, the number of particles in the universe, the mass and size of a typical elementary particle, the universal gravitational constant, the speed of light and so on, thus solving some of the problems pointed out by Dirac , , years ago, and which had been dismissed as freak coincidences. In the present model, all these relations follow from the theory, rather than being accidental. Apart from the fact that this model provides an explanation for the puzzling time variation of the fine structure constant, it also gives a mechanism for reconciling the two great irreconcible theories of the twentieth century, namely Einstein's General Relativity and Quantum Theory.
The key to this is the fact that, in both these theories, space and time were taken to be continuous and smooth, whereas in this model this is no longer true, though these subtler effects can only be detected at very tiny scales or high energies Sidharth , a,b; a. Different Routes to Multiple Universes According to consensus, the universe was born over 13 billion years ago in a big bang. Yet, although theories abound, the edge, or horizon for where the first stars are believed to reside, has not yet been found.
Presumably, this failure is due to the vast distances and the limitations in current technology and the relative power of the Hubble and other space telescopes. The theoretical horizon and the light from the most distant stars may be too far away or to dim to see. Another possibility is there is no horizon; or, there is a horizon beyond the horizon, and the universe may extend into infinity. Or yet, another possibility is that our "known universe" is but an "island universe" and each island is separated by vast distances.
This implies that even if we were to detect the most distant stars in this universe, there may be yet another "island universe" at a distance as great as our universe is across. Thus, there may be trillions upon unknown trillions of "island universes" with galaxies, stars, planets, and humans just like those of Earth.
If these "island universes" are identical to our own, they could be considered "parallel universes.
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In the Beginning Why should there be more than one universe? Why should there be any universe? How did it all begin, or did it even have a beginning? Most cosmologists, astrophysicists, astronomers, and theologians believe the universe had a beginning.
Theologians tell us that god created the universe. The consensus in the scientific community is that it all began with a "Big Bang.
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The field of physics is at a complete loss and unable to provide any reasonable explanation, and as such, we can only say that if there was a Big Bang, the laws of physics did not yet apply and this is because these laws had not yet been created. Thus, the only answer is that the "Universe was self-creating" and as pointed out by Joseph , , this smacks of theology and the Judeo-Christian religion which uses similar terminology, i. Perhaps this quantum sea of potentiality has been in fluctuation for all eternity. It is from this potentiality that emerge all the electromagnetic waves and elemental particles which will comprise matter and thus the universe.
Initially, therefore, this sea may have consisted of an infinite number of singularities and potentialities.
Again, we cannot say what happened at the moment of the big bang, because there were no observers and no laws of physics. These laws emerged after what is called "Planck Time" approximately 10 seconds after the Big Bang. It is only after "Planck Time" has elapsed and when the emerging universe reaches the size of the Planck scale, that physics became law and can thus be applied to what happened next.
According to some versions of String theory during the Planck era the Universe was little more than "quantum foam" which had 10 dimensions and then collapsed into 4 within dimensions curled up inside dimensions , signaling the end of the Planck era. However, prior to the dimensional collapse, space time was being twisted and contorted and very small black holes, each no larger than a Planck length were being continuously created and annihilated.
However, not all black holes were destroyed and some became the building blocks of matter. Implicit in this scenario is the possibility that numerous bubbles emerged from the cosmic foam, and each bubble became a universe.
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These "bubbles" have been likened to bubbles gushing out of a bottle of an aerated drink that has just been opened Geller with each bubble corresponding to a single universe. However it must be mentioned that a more recent development, that of decoherence could make the many worlds interpretation redundant Sidharth To put it simply, decoherence argues that in a sense the universe itself is an observer and every wave function is being continuously observed in that it is being bombarded with some form of an interaction.
Many Worlds: Multiverse Everything is possible. If it has not happened, it will happen, or it has happened in another universe. In Everett proposed that quantum potentiality and an infinite number of quantum possibilities results in "many worlds" and maybe an infinite number of possible worlds.
This has been called the "many worlds" interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, and according to Everett this obviates the need for invoking the collapse of the wave function as dictated by the Copenhagen school. So in the simple act of, let us say an electron going from one point to another point, a centimeter away, there are millions, or maybe an infinite number of hidden acts that have taken place, each in its universe.
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The many worlds interpretation has inspired a number of scientists, including the Oxford Physicist David Deutsch to propose the multiverse or parallel universes theory. In a sense this collapsed actually realized wave function or universe is one of a conglomeration of any number of other universes which in truth have not collapsed, according to this line of thinking Deutsch There is yet another route to this conclusion.
When a star collapses into a black hole, at the very center there is what is called a singularity. A singularity can be thought of as a junction or crossroads of infinitely many different roads. Only in our case it is the junction of infinitely many universes each legitimate in its own right, and moreover each with its own laws of nature.
At singularity, all laws of nature breakdown. Each of the black holes in the universe, conceals the singularity which, without any Quantum Mechanical argument itself throws up any number of possible universes Rees As Rees puts it, "Our universe may be just one element - one atom, as it were - in an infinite ensemble: a cosmic archipelago.