The Restorers Son (The Sword of Lyric Book 2)
Repentance is by definition a "turning away" from sin, and Jesus' people are described as His sheep see anywhere in the Gospels. Again, using drbroberts' insight, it seems this line is referring to the Christian beginning to answer the call to repentance: he turns away from his sin to his reflection--that is, the opposite mirrored path from what he has been taking--to follow the right path, but before he really gets the chance to change he the sheep "becomes the wolf"--he is enticed back by temptation and dives headlong into the sin.
The Christian was respondent to his convictions at first, hence the turning to walk the right path in the lyric before, but "became the wolf" and dove back into the sin, hardening his heart. He is loveless towards his Savior through these sinful decisions, but his conscience has now become calloused from his return to the sin, so he has no shame. He still feels some conviction, and he is waiting for it to fully go away--the "calm before the storm" when his convictions are calm and absent yet he knows this means Jesus is about to break him over his sin.
His tongue, that of a two-edged sword that he shares by union with Jesus see chorus , is being sharpened by his own sin--that is, Jesus in His grace is still using all of this to further increase the Christian's ability to proclaim His truth in love. Once the Christian is broken of this sin, the trials and restoration to repentance will give him a renewed fervor and ability for spreading the Gospel--Jesus saving him from his sin again will only be more fuel for his fire eyes.
Now, this part comes out of the chorus but retains the frantic sound of the chorus--the awaited storm has come. The Christian has finally been shaken from his fall into sin by a powerful conviction from the Spirit, and he now cries out to the Lord to "tell him all the things he needs to know"--to correct him in his error and teach him how to live upright. This is sung in a frantic style, emphasizing with the next lines the broken state of the Christian, desperate to be restored to Christ.
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He is broken over his sin and admits guilt before the Lord, knowing He will "find him in the silence of his own guilt. The Christian continues his plea before the Lord with crying out to the Lord to "shout" to him of his sins "from hell"--that is, to show him what it means for him to be heading towards hell in his sin, to shout "from hell" so the Christian might have a glimpse of his future should he not repent, so that he can shake free of the enchantment of sin and repent to save his soul imagine Jesus standing in hell, shouting to him "Is this where you want to be??
In his treatise Of Education Milton writes, "The end then of Learning is to repair the ruines of our first Parents by regaining to know God aright, and out of that knowledge to love him" Of Education.
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Themes of knowledge and education play important roles in Paradise Lost , which, according to Lewalski, is "preeminently a poem about knowing and choosing" The dominance of these themes comes from the fact that Milton is writing about the first humans on earth, humans who have no history and no way of knowing the world except through God's inspiration. When Raphael comes to earth in Book 5, he explains to Adam the difference between human knowledge, which is attained through discourse, and angelic knowledge, which is attained through intuition. He says that the two types of knowledge differ "but in degree, of kind the same," suggesting that if humans remain obedient they will eventually attain intuitive knowledge PL 5.
He is eager to explain to Adam the story of the war in Heaven and the creation of earth, but he stops when Adam asks about the nature of the universe. At this point Milton is suggesting that the goal of knowledge is not to know everything in the universe, but to increase our "appreciation of God's goodness" and ultimately increase our faith Marshall Grossman, "Milton's Dialectical Visions" Interestingly, Eve — perhaps demonstrating intuitive knowledge of the kind Adam has yet to attain — chooses the moment directly preceding Raphael's comment to move out of hearing of the conversation.
This act "represents in dramatic terms the same lesson Raphael has tried to make clear: Creation is to be both enjoyed and understood as a sign of God; to examine it critically is to forget man's place in it" Robert L. Just as we should be temperate with food, we must discriminate between different kinds of knowledge, avoiding that which will move us away from God. This brings us to the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil.
Milton emphasizes that the importance of the Tree lies less in the knowledge it brings than in its function as "The only sign of our obedience" PL 4. Nevertheless, the Tree raises questions about the different types of knowledge that exist before and after the fall. When Adam and Eve eat the fruit, they lose the capacity to attain intuitive knowledge. Instead, according to Leonard, they "gain knowledge of the darkness into which creation falls when it is deprived of God's goodness" xxxiii. Because they are more removed from God, they cannot learn in the same way they once did.
When the angel Michael comes to earth to tell Adam about the future, he begins by giving him visions, but eventually must stop and narrate the rest because he perceives Adam's "mortal sight to faile" PL The fallen Adam has less access to an understanding of God and Heaven than the unfallen one, and Michael must be more careful than Raphael to relate his tale in an understandable way. These problems exist between God and the angels, between angels and humans, between Adam and Eve, and finally, between the poem and the reader. As Clark explains, the fallen reader has no way to understand Paradise, let alone Heaven and Hell, and Milton's method of describing them involve metaphors, similes, and negatives.
But if the fallen reader cannot know Paradise, does it then follow that the unfallen Adam and Eve cannot know evil?
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Many critics, including Michael Lieb, argue that the significance of God's command not to eat the fruit lies in its very ambiguity: if Adam and Eve do not understand evil or death, the consequences of eating the fruit, their only reason to obey God is their faith, which should be reason enough " Paradise Lost and the Myth of Prohibition". But Clark disagrees, writing that the climax of the work "depends on Eve and Adam's having a competent sense of knowledge" These opposing views are wrapped up in Milton's depiction of a Paradise in which Adam and Eve have instant knowledge of everything they can name, and are simultaneously too pure to know unhappiness or recognize evil when they see it.
Nothing less than the creation and ordering of the universe defines the scope of Paradise Lost. The epic explores its cosmological theme in theoretical discussions between Adam and Raphael and in the narrator's descriptions and metaphors. Further, Milton imagines Satan surveying the universe in an expedition of discovery through a new world in his fall from Heaven and his passage through Chaos to Earth. Adam tries to understand the earth's physical place in the universe and its associated ontological and theological value as the home of man.
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Milton asks us to imagine the first man struggling with many of the same questions a Renaissance thinker, contemplating new models of the universe, must have considered. In response to the theory that everything revolves around the sun and not the earth, philosophers were forced to question the importance of man's role in the universal order. Yet, the poem does not answer all such questions directly, and scholars often find it difficult to determine Milton's attitude toward science. In these debates, it is helpful to remember that Milton was not a scientist but a theorist.
He did not contribute to scientific knowledge so much as to an understanding of what new scientific ideas might mean to traditional Christian cosmology. In the mid-sixteenth century, Nicolaus Copernicus and his followers, most notably Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei , disturbed the entire Christian world by proposing a heliocentric model of the universe that displaced the earth, and by extension humanity, from the center.
As the Reformation progressed, resulting theological debates acquired political importance and Milton, as a politically conscious theologian, addressed these issues in Paradise Lost. Critics debate the extent of Milton's interest in the advancement of science. Catherine Gimelli Martin notes that many find "his cosmology stands on the wrong side of the great scientific revolution initiated by Copernicus, furthered by Galileo, and completed by Newton " "What If the Sun Be Centre" However, Martin argues that classifying Milton as scientifically backward is a mistake resulting from our modern society: "we too easily forget that during this formative period, no 'advancement of learning,' scientific or otherwise, could yet be conceived as succeeding apart from the requisite disclaimers about the folly of seeking superhuman knowledge and the proper assurances of humility before heights of Divine Wisdom" Martin Modern readers tend to treat scientific knowledge as inevitably progressive and therefore expect in Milton an appreciation of our modern scientific values and knowledge.
As a rationalist, Milton must have admired the new sciences but, as a classicist and a Christian theologian, he had not yet placed scientific knowledge ahead of piety or biblical knowledge. William Poole notes the danger of seeing in Milton an advanced scientific philosopher and warns: "we should be extremely wary forcing Milton into clothes he does not fit" "Milton and Science: A Caveat" However, within the middle ground, scholars agree with Martin that Milton appreciated the value of scientific thought and development, although he may have doubted the reach of this branch of human knowledge.
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Cosmology appears in Paradise Lost through direct scientific references, incorporation of new scientific theories into various characters' worldviews, and warnings against seeking beyond the limits of human knowledge. Martin observes: "Galileo or his telescope is approvingly cited on five separate occasions in Milton's epic the only contemporary reference to appear at all " Martin These instances illustrate that such scientific discovery can be a means of comprehending God's glory and "Almightie works" PL 7.
Other scholars note that Milton's theories of social order in Paradise Lost echo scientific thought. In The Matter of Revolution , John Rogers contends that Milton's work explores the extent of the vitalist scientific movement that argued for "the infusion of all material substance with the power of reason" The Matter of Revolution 1.
Rogers finds this theory at work in Milton's understanding of creation and his ordering of the universe, as well as in human systems of society and government. Rather than relegating humanity to the periphery with the earth in the heliocentric model, Rogers suggests "Milton decentralizes divinity, representing an action logically prior to the decentralizations of the state" The Matter of Revolution Thus, Milton uses new scientific theories of order to inform his consideration of issues such as politics and free will in his epic poem. While scientific arguments, such as a heliocentric universe, offer positive contributions to his revolutionary political theory, Milton hesitates before the theological ramifications.
A decentralized universe—or one centered on something other than man, created in God's image—requires each object to behave predictably and suitably within the larger scheme, "each in thir several active Sphears assign'd" PL 5. If this pattern fails, chaos will result. As Rogers notes: "Satan, in Book Two, promises Chaos that he will work to return to its original chaotic state the belated imposition of creation.
The possibility of a chaotic resurgence has no meaningful role in the poem's cosmology, but its expression voices Milton's fear, perhaps not so unsound, of an ever-encroaching political chaos" The Matter of Revolution In the wake of the English Civil War, anarchy was too tangibly the political counterpart of this return to chaos. Scholars currently seem to be in agreement that Milton was aware of scientific developments and their implications. Whether we can understand Milton's philosophy in terms of scientific theory, or even know Milton's conception of the extent of appropriate human knowledge, has yet to be determined.
What knowledge glorifies God and what knowledge—too great for human understanding—threatens the very systems it seeks to explain? One can learn a great deal from the gap between when Milton wrote Paradise Lost and when it finally went to press. As David Kastan notes in his helpful introduction , "it had been finished at least two years" before Samuel Simmons finally published it in Between completion and publication, the political instability of the period conspired to delay the release of Paradise Lost.
In a practical sense, the second Anglo-Dutch war of caused a paper shortage. The confusion and fear after the plague and fire of London added to the turbulence of the period. Altogether, this created an unfavorable environment for controversial literature see Nicholas von Maltzahn's article, "The First Reception of Paradise Lost ".
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Eventually, of course, Milton did seek a printer. It is uncertain why he chose Samuel Simmons, an obscure stationer, to print Paradise Lost. Kastan speculates that the stationer's proximity to Milton's home was a factor, especially since Simmons's presses were among the few unharmed by the Great Fire. He also speculates that "perhaps it was family loyalty," as Simmons's father had printed several of Milton's prose works.
Kastan notes that Simmons had a reputation for printing "seditious books;" this may have drawn Milton to Simmons. Their business relationship was remarkable, as Kastan details it, in that "the surviving contract is the earliest between a writer and publisher that has come to light, and Simmons, at least to later generations, has been often criticized for taking advantage of the blind and disgraced Milton. In order to protect his copyright to Paradise Lost , Milton had to apply to have the poem licensed. Both von Maltzahn and Kastan detail the objections of Thomas Tomkins, the licenser and chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Milton's anti-monarchist themes, combined with his reputation as a proponent of regicide, made Tomkins seek to deny the poem license. Thus, despite his issues with the subversive nature of the poem, and lines 1. The first edition of Paradise Lost was published in Major changes to the first edition, however, did not occur until the printing, which added fourteen pages.
Now I am preparing to read the fourth and final in this series. Can hardly wait to get started.
see Oct 25, C. After yet another harrowing experience in Lyric Susan, Mark, and their son Jake return home. But they are not alone. The villainous elder Cameron and his mind-altering Rhusican partner Medea have escape into their world and vanished without a trace. When her fears are realized and Cameron and Medea drag her back to Lyric, Susan is dropped into the worst trial she has faced yet — the battlefield of her own mind.
Locked up and alone in a Rhusican prison, all she can do is pray and wait for the next time her captors come to torture her mind by using her own hurts and fears against her, coaxing all her worst traits and emotions into a frenzy. The One felt so far away, but could He still have a purpose for the pain? Jake returns to Lyric alone to find his missing mother. Months have passed and nothing is as it was.
The people live in fear of their new king — Cameron. The guardians are scattered and in hiding. Worse, no one believes in the Restorers anymore. Seeing through the lies that Cameron spins is easy for Jake, but no one else will believe him. Even his allies have become his enemies.